Jharkhand- better known as “Bush land” or simply the “land of forests” is a new State in Eastern India created out of the Southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000. The state shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh to the northwest, Chhattisgarh to the west, Odisha to the south, and West Bengal to the east. Jharkhand’s capital city is Ranchi and sub-capital city is Dumka. Jharkhand is also India’s famous academic and industrial zones and the largest city of this State is Jamshedpur which is the main industrial zone of this region. There are 24 districts in Jharkhand and Hindi is the official language of the State.
|Established||15 November, 2000|
|Total Population (2011)||32,988,134|
|High Court||Jharkhand High Court|
|Rivers||Damodar River, subarnarekha, Ganges, Barakar River, south koel, Ajay River, North Koel River, Kharkai River, Sankh River, Mayurakshi River, kanhar and Punpun River etc.|
|National Parks||Betla National Park, Dalma Wildlife Sanctuary, Hazaribag National Park, Latehar Range (JH)|
|Languages||Hindi, English, Urdu, Bengali, Santali, Ho, Kurukh, Mundari, Kharia, Nagpuri, Panchpargania, Khortha and Kurmali|
|Literacy Rate (2011)||67.60%|
|Females per 1000 males||947|
|Lok Sabha constituencies||14|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+05:30)|
According to historians Jharkhand existed before Magadha and it was a distinct geo-political and cultural entity. According to the Hindu epic” Bavishya Purana- Jharkhand was ruled by tribal rulers who were also known as Munda Rajas. During 500 BC in the age of Mahajanapadas Jharkhand was then part of Magadha, Anga, Banga, Kalinga, Kashi and Vajji. The royal houses of Shah Deos, Palamau, Kunda, Munda Rajas and Kothi were the erstwhile rulers of Jharkhand till the British crown annexed Jharkhand under its domain. Even the Mughals ruled over this land of forests. The tribal groups of Jharkhand were involved in various revolts against the British till Indian Independence.
Jharkhand covers a geographical area of 79.70 lakh hectare and the maximum area of this State lies on the Chota Nagpur Plateau. Since Jharkhand lies on this great Plateau it is very rich and fertile with vast stretches of thick forests and bushes. These forests were the natural habitat for big number of tigers and elephants. Jharkhand is the origin of various rivers such as Koel, Damoder, Brahamani, Kharkai and Subarnarekha and these rivers flow through the Chota Nagpur Plateau.
Jharkhand has a population of 32.96 million as per Indian Census of 2011. It consists of 16.93 million males and 16.03 million females. Around one third of its population is tribal and there are around 35 primitive tribal groups in Jharkhand. The sex ratio is 947 females to 1000 males. The literacy rate of the state is 67.63% with Ranchi district being most literate at 77.13% compared to rural Pakur district being least at 50.17%.
Jharkhand’s per capital income is US$726.8 and it also reported a gross income of Rs. 204,910 million for 2005. Jharkhand also has immense mineral resource deposits like iron ore, coal, copper ore, mica, bauxite, manganese, limestone, china clay, fire clay, graphite, kainite, chromites, asbestos, thorium, sillimanite, uranium and even gold and silver along with various other minerals. The cities of Jamshedpur, Dhanbad, Bokaro and Ranchi are largest industrial area which contributes greatly to the State’s economy. NTPC and Tata Steel are the few multinational companies situated in Jharkhand which contributes greatly to Indian economy.
Jharkhand is perfect holiday destination who wants to spend their holidays on the lap of nature and wild. Some of the famous tourist spots here are Dassam Falls, Sun Temple, Birsa Zoological Park, Jamshedpur Industrial Area, Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary, Betla National Park, Bhuvaneshwari Temple, Ranchi hill, Nakshatra Van Park, etc. Another attraction is located in Ghatshila which is famous for forests, Ghatshila Rankini Mandir and Burudi Lake. Rajmahal is an old place in Jharkhand which is famous for fossils, monuments, rivers and historical areas. Other top tourist places are Pahari Mandir, Baidyanath temple, Tagore hill, Jagannath Temple, Bhagawan Birsa Biological Park, Naulakha Museum, Tribal Museum, Dalma Wildlife Sanctuary, Usri falls and many worth visiting tourist destinations.
Jharkhand’s most popular sport remains Cricket, Hockey and Football since many decades. Moreover, brilliant sports personalities have been emerged out of Jharkhand. Jaipal Singh (former Indian Hockey Captain and Olympian), Manohar Topno, Birendra Lakra and Bimal Lakra (Indian Hockey Team) hails from Jharkhand. Mahendra Singh Dhoni – the former captain of the Indian Cricket Team who led the country to win the ICC Cricket World Cup in 2011 also belongs from Jharkhand. Another rising cricket star from Jharkhand is Varun Aaron and Saurabh Tiwary who plays for the Indian Premier League. Jharkhand is also the home to ace archer Deepika Kumari who is a gold medal winner of Commonwealth Games 2010 and is currently ranked as No. 1 archer in the world.
Jharkhand is connected to the rest of India via air, roads and ports. Ranchi is the largest domestic airport in the State which has daily flights to the major cities of India like Delhi, Kolkata, Bangalore, Mumbai, Hyderabad, etc. Other airports present in the state are Bokaro Airport, Jamshedpur Airport, Chakulia Airport, Dumka Airport and Dhanbad Airport who mostly run private and charter flights. Jharkhand has extensive road network of National Highways and State Highways. Some of the National Highways present in the State are NH- 2, 6, 23, 31, 32, 33, 43, 75, 78, 80, 98, 99, 100, 114A, 133, 133B, 133A, 143A, 220, 333, 333A, 343 and 419. Moreover, the Golden Quadrilateral network of Delhi- Kolkata route runs through Dhanbad area of Jharkhand. This State also has numerous rivers and waterways transports.
Tribal culture is quite dominant in the State’s culture since this is a tribal dominant state. The peoples of Jharkhand speak Hindi, Urdu, Santhali, Bengali, Mundari, Ho and Odia. They also celebrate the prominent festivals of the State i.e. Basant Panchami and Chhat Puja with great pomp and show. The State’s folk dance- Agni and Jhumar is quite popular which is performed by the Adivasis. Jharkhand is also popular for its incredible art and craft which includes the big colorful masks which is prepared from dark clay obtained from the banks of Khakai River. Another form of art- Jadu Patua is a type of scroll painting which is an important type of India’s traditional painting.
Since Jharkhand got a separate State recognition, the Jharkhand Education Project Council (JEPC) has been implementing projects like DPEP, SSA, NPEGEL and KGBV to spread elementary education around the State. Some of the best known schools of Jharkhand which operate nationally and regionally are Vikas Vidyalaya, Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, DAV Hehal, St. Thomas School, Delhi Public School, Oxford Public School, De Nobili School, Kendriya Vidyalaya, Chinmaya Public School, Loyola school, Sacred Heart School, St. Xavier’s, Shishu Mandir and Surendranath Centenary School. This State also has good educational institutes which spreads quality and best higher education. Some of the institutes are Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi University, Central University of Jharkhand, National University of Study and Research in Law, St, Xavier’s College, Indian Institute of Technology (Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad), National Institute of Technology(Jamshedpur), Central Institute of Psychiatry, Birla Institute of Technology and many more renowned institutes and Universities.
Hospitals and Healthcare
Jharkhand’s mild climate has made this State as a health resort especially the State’s capital city – Ranchi. Some of the best known hospitals are European Mental Hospital which was established along with Indian Mental Hospital. Today they are called Central Institute of Psychiatry and Ranchi Institute of Neuro-psychiatry and Allied Sciences respectively. Tata Main Hospital (Jamshedpur) is famous for cancer treatment and the largest in Eastern India. Moreover, Tata Motors Hospital is also an example of an ISO 14001 and 18001 certified hospital with DNB teaching facilities. Ranchi, the capital, has witnessed a quick growth in the number of hospitals. Hospitals like Orchid Medical Centre have introduced world class healthcare services to the people of the state.