Originally known as State of Mysore, this state situated in the south western region of India was formed on 1 November 1956 and its present name “Karnataka’ was into effect from 1973 onwards. Karnataka is also known as the Carnatic region to the rest of India. Bangalore is the largest and the capital city of Karnataka. Karnataka is the eighth largest state by population, including 30 districts. Kannada is one of the conventional languages of India which is the most widely spoken in Karnataka along with Konkani, Tulu and Sanskrit. Kannada is also the official language of Karnataka.
|Established||01 November 1956|
|Largest City||Bangalore (Bengaluru)|
|Total Population (2011)||61,130,704|
|High Court||Karnataka High Court|
|Rivers||Kaveri River, Tungabhadra River, Krishna River, Sharavati, Malaprabha, Kabini, Tunga River, Tunga River, Kali River and Arkavati etc.|
|National Parks||Bandipur National Park, Nagarhole National Park, Bannerghatta National Park, Anshi National Park, Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary and Mudumalai National Park|
|Languages||Kannada, Tulu, Konkani and Kodava|
|State Animal||Asian elephant|
|State Bird||Indian Roller|
|Literacy Rate (2011)||75.36%|
|Females per 1000 males||968|
|Lok Sabha constituencies||28|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+05:30)|
The land of Karnataka goes back towards the pre-history times during the Paleolithic ages since hand axes and cleavers were discovered in this region. Moreover, Karnataka was also a part of Neolithic and megalithic cultures. This Indian State also has contacts with the Indus Valley Civilization since gold found in Harappa was imported from the mines of Ancient Karnataka. During the 3rd century BC Karnataka was part of the Nanda Empire – the largest state of the Mahajanapadas of that time. Later, it came under the Mauryan dynasty. Karnataka was also ruled by prominent dynasties which include Satavahanas, Kadambas, Westerm Ganga, Badami Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Hoysalas, Wodeyars, Nizam of Hyderabad, the Maratha Empire and the British. In 1950, after India’s independence, the Maharaja, Jayachamarajendra Wodeyar, allowed his kingdom’s accession to India.
Karnataka is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, Goa to the northwest, Maharashtra to the north, Telangana to the northeast, Andhra Pradesh to the east, Tamil Nadu to the southeast and Kerala to the south. The state covers an area of 191,976 square kilometers and is the seventh largest Indian state by area. The geographical zones of this Southern state is categorized as: The coastal region of Karavali, the hilly Malenadu region comprising the Western Ghats and the Bayaluseeme region comprising the plains of the Deccan plateau. The State’s highest point is the Mullayanagiri hills in Chickmagalur district which has an altitude of 6,329 ft. Karnataka is a very fertile region since rivers like Kaveri, Tungabhadra, Krishna, Malaprabha and the Sharavathi flows throughout here and enrich its soil and its civilization.
According to the 2011 census of India, the total population of Karnataka was 61,095,297 out of which 30,966,657 (50.7%) were male and 30,128,640 (49.3%) were female. It means there are 1000 males for every 973 females. The population density is 319 per km2 and 38.67% of the people lived in cities and towns. The literacy rate was 75.36% with 82.47% of males and 68.08% of females being literate.
Karnataka had an estimated GSDP (Gross State Domestic Product) of about US$115.86 billion in the 2014–15 fiscal years with growth rate of 7 %. Around 56% of the workforce in Karnataka is engaged in agriculture and other allied activities. Karnataka is also the centre of various manufacturing industries which includes huge public sector giants like Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, National Aerospace Laboratories, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Bharat Earth Movers Limited and HMT (formerly Hindustan Machine Tools), which are based out at Bengaluru. India’s renowned science and technology research centre are based out at Bangalore which includes Indian Space Research Organization, Central Power Research Institute, Bharat Electronics Limited and the Central Food Technological Research Institute. Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Limited is an oil refinery located in Mangalore. During 1980’s Karnataka has become the IT hub and since then it is known as ‘Silicone Valley” of India with huge numbers of IT companies.
Karnataka has the mass attraction for various tourist related spots and there are various places of Karnataka which depicts ancient sculptured temples, modern cities, scenic hill ranges, forests and beaches. Karnataka has 25 wildlife sanctuaries and five national parks. Popular among them are Bandipur National Park, Bannerghatta National Park and Nagarhole National Park. The ruins of the Vijayanagara Empire of Hampi and the monuments of Pattadakal are declared UNESCO’s World Heritage Sites. Other tourist destinations are Mysore Palace, cave temples of Badami, Hoysala temples of Belur, Gol Gumbaz of Bijapur etc. Karnataka is also the host to the tallest sculpted monolith in the world which attracts millions of pilgrims during the Mahamastakabhisheka festival.
Karnataka’s capital city Bangalore (Bengaluru) has hosted various sports events like the annual Kodava Hockey Festival (largest hockey tournament in the world), WTA Tennis, National Games and International cricket matches. The Sports Authority of India and the Nike Tennis Academy are situated in Bangalore. Karnataka is also known as the cradle of Indian swimming because of its high standards in comparison to other states. Chinnaswamy Stadium is the largest sports stadium in the State.
The Royal Challengers Bangalore- an IPL team Pro Kabaddi League franchise is based out at Bangalore. The Karnataka Premier League is an inter-regional Twenty20 cricket tournament is also played in Karnataka. This state is also the home to some of the famous sportsperson of India like Anil Kumble, Javagal Srinath, Rahul Dravid, Venkatesh Prasad, Robin Uthappa, Ashwini Ponnappa, Mahesh Bhupathi, Rohan Bopanna, Prakash Padukone, etc.
Karnataka has a growing air network connecting the State with rest part of India and world. Karnataka has domestic airports at Bengaluru, Mangalore, Belgaum, Hubli, Hampi, Bellary and Mysore with international flight services from Bangalore and Mangalore airports. Karnataka’s entire rail network is about 3,089 kilometers with South, West and South Western rail zones. Coastal Karnataka is covered under the Konkan railway network which was considered India’s biggest railway project of the century. Karnataka has 11 ports and the most famous of them is the New Mangalore port. Foreigners can enter Mangalore through the New Mangalore Port with the help of Electronic visa (e-visa).Cruise ships from Europe, North America and UAE arrive at New Mangalore Port to visit the tourist places across Coastal Karnataka. The total lengths of National Highways and state highways in Karnataka are 3,973 and 9,829 kilometers respectively. The KSRTC is the State Public Transport Corporation which commutes about 2.2 million passengers daily through state run buses all around the state.
Karnataka is the home to various religious and ethnic groups consisting of Kannadigas, Tuluvas, Kodavas and Konkanis. Other minor populations are the Tibetan Buddhists and tribes like the Soligas, Yeravas, Todas and Siddhis also live in Karnataka. The main festivals celebrated here are Kar Hunnive, Hampi Utsav, Varmalakhsmi, etc. Simha Nutrya, Yakshagana is the major classical dance forms and India’s major theatrical forms. Karnataka is also the centre of Indian Classical Music consisting of both Carnatic and Hindustani styles. Apart from these arts and crafts like Bidri, Chitragars’ wood chiseling, specialized card game Ganjifa and silk weaving also enriches the rich culture of this Southern State.
Karnataka is regarded to be the educational hub of India since IT students flock to Karnataka to study engineering here because of high quality education and infrastructure. This State has the largest number of colleges and Universities offering various engineering courses. Some of the renowned educational institutions are Bangalore University, Devangere University, Karnatak University, Karnataka State Law University, University of Agricultural and Horticultural Sciences, Shivamogga, University of Mysore, Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University, M.S. Ramaiah University, R.V. Engineering College, Christ University, etc.
Hospital and Healthcare
Karnataka has India’s some of the best hospitals especially in Bangalore. This includes Manipal Hospitals, Bowring and Lady Curzon Hospital, Mallya Hospital, Fortis Hospital, Columbia Asia Hospital, Hosmat Hospital, M S Ramaiah Hispital, Oswal Hoapital, Narayana Multi-speciality Hospital and many more on the list.