Mizoram is a North-Eastern State of India with Aizawl serving as its capital city. The name of this State denotes “Land of the native inhabitants” which means “Mizo”, the name of the native inhabitants, and “Ram”, which means land, and thus Mizoram means “land of the Mizos”. Like several other northeastern states, Mizoram too was earlier part of Assam until 1972, when it was carved out as a separate State and it became the 23rd state of India on 20 February 1987. This State has the highest concentration of tribal people residing here and around 87 % population follows Christianity. Mizo is the local language of the State and other spoken language are English and Hindi. It has total 8 districts and the largest district is Aizawl.
|Established||20 February, 1987|
|High Court||Guwahati High Court – Aizawl Bench|
|Rivers||Mizoram, Tlawng River, Chhimtuipui, Karnaphuli River, Serlui, Kaladan River, Longai River etc.|
|National Parks||Murlen National Park, Phawngpui National Park|
|State Animal||Hillock Gibbon|
|State Bird||Mrs. Hume’s Pheasant|
|State Tree||Iron Wood|
|State Flower||Thar Senhri|
|Literacy Rate (2011)||91.58|
|Females per 1000 males||975|
|Lok Sabha constituencies||09-Feb-00|
The origin of the Mizo people residing at Mizoram is just like any other tribal group of India which is still unknown and their origin is just a mystery. The people living in Mizo hills claim that the Kukis are the oldest residents of this State. Before the British rule the Mizos lived under various clans in independent villages. The tribal chief holds an important position but remained under the small political jurisdiction of the Kings of Manipur, Tripura and Burma. In earlier times, the Mizo tribes were involved in tribal raids, loots and head-hunting where the tribals cut the head of their enemies and hung it in the entrance of their village. But in 1895, when Mizoram became part of the British India practices of head hunting was banned including the neighboring areas of Mizo hills. In 1898, the northern and southern part of the Mizo hills became part of Assam provision and it was known as the Lushai Hills District. The arrival of Christian missionaries with the gospel spread Christianity in the mid-20th century and a major part of its population embraced Christianity.
The landlocked State of Mizoram covers an area of 21,087 km2 sharing 722 kilometres long international borders with Myanmar and Bangladesh, and northern part of this State share domestic border with Manipur, Assam and Tripura. The Tropic of Cancer runs through the state just about at its middle. The State is filled with rolling hills, rivers, valleys and lakes. Geological Survey of India states that the terrain of Mizoram is a young topography and the physiographic features consists of many North-South longitudinal valleys having chains of small and flat hummocks, mostly anticline, parallel to sub-parallel hill ranges and narrow adjacent synclinal valleys with series of topographic highs. North-South longitudinal valleys containing series of small and flat hummocks, mostly anticlinal, parallel to sub-parallel hill ranges and narrow adjoining synclinal valleys with series of topographic highs. Mizoram lies in seismic zone 5 as per Meteorological Department of India and due to this it has the highest risk of earthquakes as compared to other Indian States. The biggest river in Mizoram is Chhimtuipui which originates from Burma.
Mizoram has a population of 1,091,014 with 552,339 males and 538,675 females. The sex ratio of the state is 976 females for every thousand males. The population density is 52 persons per square kilometer. The literacy rate of Mizoram in 2011 Census of India was 91.33 %.
The gross state domestic product (GSDP) of Mizoram in 2011-2012 was approximately Rs.6, 991 crore (US$1.1 billion). The fact that Mizoram shares international borders with Bangladesh and Myanmar it is an important centre for import and export of goods with South- East Asian countries. The biggest contributors to state’s economic growth are Agriculture, Public Administration and Construction work. Around 60% of the population is engaged in agriculture especially the Jhum farming. Moreover, the state is developing its Kolodyne River for navigation and international trade. Other occupation includes horticulture, forestry, fisheries and sericulture. Mizoram has two industrial estates at Zuagtui and Kolasib and a software technology park is being established in the campus of Mizoram University.
Domestic and International tourists need to obtain special permit and various requirements to visit Mizoram. Phawngpui, Sibuta Lung, Philpui Grave, Pangzawl are some of the tourist destinations which are quite interesting. Other tourist attractions are Bara Bazaar, Mizoram State Museum, Reiek Tourist Resort, Durtlang Hills, Virgin forests of Hmuifang, Solomon’s Temple, Murlen National park, Vantawng falls, etc.
Football is the popular sport played here.The State’s first football league was held in October 2012. The Mizoram Premiere League consists of 8 teams during the 2012-2013 seasons and is the highest level league in Mizoram. The 8 clubs are known as Aizawl, Chanmari, Dinthar, FC Kulikawn, Luangmual, Mizoram, RS Annexe, and Reitlang.
Mizoram had a road network of around 8,500 kilometres where buses and other motor vehicles ply on this road connecting the State to other parts of India. It has 871 kilometres of national highways, 1,663 kilometres of state highways and 2,320 kilometres of surfaced district roads. The State is connected to Silchar in Assam through the National Highway 54 and NH-150 connects the state’s Seling region to Imphal in Manipur and added to this the NH-40A links the State with Tripura. Mizoram’s Lengpui Airport near Aizawl is linked to Silchar and Kolkata. There is a rail link at Bairabi railway station which is used for goods traffic. The nearest main station to Mizoram is at Silchar in Assam. Other means of transport in helicopter and waterways.
The culture of Mizo tribes has changed after the arrival of Christianity. Earlier there was old tribal customs and traditions but now the contemporary Mizo people celebrate Christmas, Easter and other Christian celebrations. While the traditional festivals are Chapchar Kut, Mim Kut, Pawl Kut, etc which were celebrated before the arrival of Christianity. But now these festivals are less prevalent. Traditional dance and music forms are Khal Lam, Chai, Chhilam, Sawlkin.
The schools of Mizoram are run by the state, central government or by private organization. The medium of instruction is mainly in English and Mizo. Mizoram has one Central University (Mizoram University), one engineering college (National Institute of Technology Mizoram) and one private university (a branch of the Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts of India) which are among the renowned educational institutes of India.
Hospitals and Healthcare
The healthcare infrastructure of Mizoram is moderate. Some of the best hospitals of this State are Civil Hospital, Greenwood Hospital, New Life Hospital, Aizawl Hospital and Research Centre, The Nazareth Groups of Hospitals, etc.