Punjab- the land of five rivers is one of the richest Indian State situated on the North-Western part of India. This State is known to be the home of Punjabis. Chandigarh is the capital city of Punjab and Ludhiana is the largest city of this State. It comprises of 22 districts. The largest district in Punjab is Firozepur in terms of area covering an area of 5865 sq km and Nawan Shehar is the smallest district in the state of Punjab with an area of 1258 sq km. Punjabi is widely spoken here and is also the official language of the State.

Established 01 November 1966
Capital Chandigarh
Largest City Ludhiana
District 22
High Court Punjab and Haryana High Court
Rivers Sutlej, Ravi River, Beas River, Jhelum River, Indira Gandhi Canal, Kali Bein, Chakki river etc.
National Parks Abohar Wildlife Sanctuary, Harike Wildlife Sanctuary, Jhajjar Bacholi, Bir Moti Bagh Wildlife Sanctuary, Bir Bhadson Wildlife Sanctuary etc.
Languages Punjabi, Hindi, Urdu, Gurmukhi and English
Population (2011) 2,77,04,236
Density 550/km2
Area 50,362 km2
State Animal Black Buck
State Bird Baaz
State Tree Shisham
State Flower Lilium
Literacy Rate (2011) 82.20%
Females per 1000 males 893
Lok Sabha constituencies 119
Assembly constituency 13-Jan-00
Official Website http://punjab.gov.in/
Time zone UTC+05:30


The name of this State “Punjab” is a composition of Persian words, that is ‘Panj ‘means five and ‘ab’ means water. Thus, it roughly means that this land is known as the ‘Land of 5 Rivers”. During the ancient times as per the Indian Epic Mahabharata, Punjab was ruled by the Katoch Kings. At that period of time, this is around 800–400 BCE, this State was known as Trigarta. Punjab was also the important centre of Indus Valley Civilization with cities like Ropar until 1900 BCE. Punjab was also the part of the Vedic civilization since it lies near the bank of River Saraswati. Punjab was ruled by several Indian Kings and dynasties like King Porus (Puru). During the rule of King Porus, Punjab was invaded by the Alexander the Great, but later after the battle the land was returned back to King Porus because Alexander was impressed with the bravery of King Porus. After that Chandragupta Maurya captured and ruled Punjab which is followed by the rule of Gandharas, Nandas, Shungas, Kushans, Palas, Gurjara-Pratiharas, Hindu Shahis Gupta Empire, Huns, Mongol, Harsha, Delhi Sultanate, Mughal Empire, Sikh rulers and finally the British Empire.


Punjab covers an area of 50,362 square kilometres, this is 1.53% of India’s total geographical area. This State shares its boundaries with Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir to the north, Himachal Pradesh to the east, Haryana to the south and southeast, Rajasthan to the southwest, and the Pakistani province of Punjab to the west. The five rivers from which the State took its name were Sutlej, Ravi, Beas, Chenab and Jhelum. Sutlej, Ravi and Beas are part of the Indian Punjab while the Chenab and Jhelum is situated in the Punjab province of Pakistan. The State of Punjab lies in the alluvial plain with various rivers flowing throughout the State and hence this region is very fertile. It also has Shivalik hills extended along the North-eastern part of the State at the foot of the Himalayas. The South-western part of the State is semi-arid and it merges with the Thar Desert.


According the Census of India 2011, the total population of Punjab is 27,704,236 peoples of which male population is 14,639,465 and female population is 13,103,873. So, this makes 16th largest State of India in terms of population. The main ethnic group is the Punjabis, with Punjabi Sikhs comprising 57.7% of the total population and Hindus forming 38.5 % of the population. The sex ratio of Punjab is declining continuously. Now the figures are 895 females for every 1000 males. This is lower than the national average of 940. On the other hand, the literacy rate increased to 75.84 % as per the 2011 population census. Of that, males have 80.44 % while the females have 70.73 %. If you count, the total literates of the State are 18,707,137 and that makes 10,436,056 literate males while the females constitutes 8,271,081.


Punjab is one of the fertile and richest States in India with a whooping Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at Rs. 3.17 lakh crore. Agriculture is the main occupation here and this State is also known as the “Granary of India”. Punjab is famous for wheat production along with other crops like Rice, sugar cane, cotton, pearl millet, maize, barley fruits and vegetables. Moreover, a big share of GDP also comes from the industrial cities of Punjab like Dera Bassi, Jalandhar, Amritsar, Ludhiana, Patiala, Bathinda, Batala, Khanna, Faridkot, Rajpura, Mohali, Mandi Gobindgarh, Ropar, Firozpur, Sangrur, Malerkotla and Moga. Ludhiana is famous for textile and woolen industry. Other important industries include agro, machinery, chemical, sugar, dairy, power and thermal industries.


Punjab has various mode transport system. The cities of this State have good deal of buses and autos which is the means of public transportation. PEPSU Road Transport Corporation (PRTC) is the largest public bus operator of Punjab and it operates all over North India. Punjab is well-connected to all metro cities of India via air. It has six civil airports including three international airports at Amritsar International Airport and Chandigarh International Airport, and four domestic airports at Bathinda Airport, Pathankot Airport, Patiala Airport, Sahnewal Airport. The railway network of the zone is controlled by the Indian Railways Northern Railway line which runs through the state connecting most of the major towns and cities. Punjab also has international rail connection with the neighbouring country Pakistan. The Samjhauta Express connects Pakistan to Indian part of Punjab.


Punjab is an important centre of tourism in India. It is famous for historic palaces, battle sites, and the great Sikh architecture. Some of the examples of Punjab’s best tourist spots are the Indus Valley Civilization site of Ropar, the ancient fort of Bathinda, the architectural monuments of Kapurthala, Patiala, and Chandigarh, The Golden Temple in Amritsar, Devi Talab Mandir at Jalandhar, Jalianwala Bagh, Wagah Border, etc.


Kabbadi (Circa style) and Field Hockey is the most popular sport played in Punjab. Punjab government also organizes World Kabbadi League. Moreover, Kila Raipur Sports Festival is very famous here for rural Olympics. Cricket is also famous in Punjab and it has its own IPL team – Kings XI Punjab. This region is also famous for its sports personalities like Kapil Dev, Milkha Singh, Yuvraj Singh, Harbhajan Singh and many more noted sportspersons.


Punjab is known for its music and dance, the world famous Bhangra is one among them which is followed by Giddha. The main festivals celebrated here are mainly seasonal and harvest which includes Baisakhi, Lohri, Basant Panchami and Teeyan. Punabi marriage is very colorful occasion to see for their rich customs and rituals, song, dance and food. Punjabi folk tales are world famous because of their timeless love stories of Mirza Sahiban, Heer Ranjha, Sohni Mahiwal, etc. Punjab is also famed for its cuisine and art & crafts like the renowned Phulkaris, Punjabi Jhuttis and wood inlay of Hoshiarpur on black shisham wood.


Punjab is famous for nesting India’s renowned and oldest educational institutes like Punjab Agricultural University, Christian Medical College of Ludhiana, Central University of Punjab in Bathinda, IIT Ropar, IIT Amritsar, and other better Universities and Colleges which is working for spreading higher education to length and breadth of the State.

Hospitals and Health care

Punjab has good hospitals that are providing very good healthcare services such as Aastha Kidney & Super Speciality Hospital, Fortis Escorts Hospitals, Gracian Hospital, Dr, Sumita Sofat Hospital, Mayo Hospital, Cosmo Hospital, etc.